The Nitrogen cycle
As in the carbon cycle, in the nitrogen (N) cycle the vast majority, 98% of the earth's nitrogen, is locked away in the lithosphere, 2% is in the atmosphere (the air we breathe is 78% N gas) and only 0.2% in the soil. It is this 0.2% that is the primary driver of the biochemical nitrogen cycle, and it is the movements of nitrogen in the soil that can give rise to N2O emissions.
Emissions from UK soils as N2O are less significant than CO2, despite N2O being 300x more powerful a GHG than CO2.
N2O emissions can be seen as a tiny (though significant, both as a GHG and as part of the biological processes that enable soil microbes to flourish) part of the nitrogen cycle and come about as a result of the action of denitrifying bacteria.
The soil nitrogen is present either as inorganic nitrogen (available for plant uptake) or organically bound nitrogen in the soil organic matter. In general over 90% of all soil nitrogen is in organically bound in the SOM. The majority is in the 'active' and 'stable' pools, and is mineralised into inorganic nitrogen and made available for plant uptake, or loss from the soil, by the action of soil micro-organisms oxidising the SOM.
The process by which inorganic N is converted to N2O is called denitrification and is carried out by a number of different bacteria. Denitrification can result in the release of nitrogen gas (N2) as well as N2O and as these are biological processes the rate at which this occurs is dependent on a number of factors.
The most significant factor in the production of N2O is the availability of nitrate (NO3) for the denitrifying bacteria to reduce. Plants take up N from the soil as ammonium, nitrites or nitrates, with the majority as nitrate. NO3 is mineralised from the soil organic matter and is also added to soil as ammonium nitrate fertilizer. Some of the NO2 will be rapidly taken up by plant growth, some will be immobilised into the SOM, some may be leached out of the soil and some is likely to be denitrified. If there is too much NO3 for the plants to take up it is liable to denitrification and leaching.
Timing of fertilizer applications and quantities applied in relation to plant growth in the next 10 days and 'surplus' NO3 in the soil is the major factor influencing N2O emissions. Ensuring that only appropriate amounts of fertilizer are applied as the crop is growing is essential to reducing soil GHG emissions,minimising N₂O emissions from soil
The vast majority of denitrifying bacteria require relatively anaerobic conditions. Soils need to have a field capacity of over 60% for dentification to occur and so improving soil structure and adequate drainage can be significant factors in reducing N2O emissions.
Temperature, available carbon and pH are also important variables – the dentrifying bacteria will be most active in warmer soil conditions with higher SOM (and available soil carbon and energy) and with a pH of 7.0 – 8.0.